Roselyn House School and The RHISE
This policy has been written with understanding and reference to:
Behaviour in Schools – DfE September 2022
Developing an Attachment Aware Behaviour Regulation Policy – Brighton and Hove September 2018
This policy should be read in conjunction with other school policies relating to interaction between adults and students. In particular Roselyn House School and The RHISE Service Behaviour Support and Physical Intervention Policy and Safeguarding Policy.
The responsible people for the implementation of this policy are the Headteacher, Business Manager, Deputy Headteachers and RHISE and RHS Co-ordinators. The policy will be reviewed annually by the Headteacher in consultation with the staff.
The Independent School Standards, Regulations (2014) make it a legal requirement that a written policy to promote good behaviour is drawn up and effectively implemented which sets out disciplinary sanctions. This also works alongside the school’s anti-bullying strategy and Safeguarding Policy.
This policy is produced in consultation with all staff so as to be clear and understood. It is available by request, in the school prospectus and on the school website. The following aspects of school practice have been addressed to contribute towards improving the quality of student behaviour,
- including the underlying objectives of the policy and how it creates a safe environment in which all students can learn and reach their full potential
Leadership and management- including the role of designated staff and leaders, any systems used, the resources allocated and engagement of Directors of KS Education Limited
School systems and social norms- including rules, routines and consequence/ reward systems
Behaviour strategies and the modelling of ‘good’ behaviour
Student Council and the implementation of this policy
Staff induction, development and support- including regular training for staff on behaviour
Student transition- including induction and re-induction into behaviour systems, rules and routines
Student support- including the roles and responsibilities of designated staff and the support provided to students with additional needs where those needs might affect behaviour
Child on child abuse- including measures to prevent child-on-child abuse and the responses to incidents of such abuse
Banned items- a list of items which are banned by school and for which a search can be made
SEMH difficulties is an overarching term for children who demonstrate difficulties with emotional regulation and/or social interaction and/or are experiencing mental health problems.
Children and young people who have difficulties with their emotional and social development may have immature social skills and find it difficult to make and sustain healthy relationships. These difficulties may be displayed through the child or young person becoming withdrawn or isolated, as well as through challenging, disruptive or disturbing behaviour.
At Roselyn House School and The RHISE Service, we experience a wide range and degree of mental health problems. These could manifest as difficulties such as problems of mood (anxiety or depression), problems of conduct (oppositional problems and more severe conduct problems including aggression), self-harming, substance abuse, eating disorders or physical symptoms that are medically unexplained. Some children and young people may have other recognised disorders such as attention deficit disorder (ADD), attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD), attachment disorder, autism or pervasive developmental disorder, an anxiety disorder, a disruptive disorder or schizophrenia or bipolar disorder.
Inappropriate / disturbing / challenging behaviours can be interpreted as a symptom or communication of an underlying need or difficulty. In order to address such behaviours, we must address these underlying needs / difficulties. It is crucial to identify, understand and then address/support the underlying factors that impact on children and young people, such as Speech, Language and Communication Difficulties, attachment difficulties, unhelpful thought processes or learning needs.
Some inappropriate / disturbing / challenging behaviours can be avoided or significantly reduced and managed through proactively promoting and supporting positive social, emotional and mental health. Roselyn House School and The RHISE Service tolerates a wide variety of behaviours but does not accept them as inevitable and unchangeable. An individual’s behaviours will be prioritised and through planned intervention and adherence to the rewards and sanctions in the policy, ensure that the consequences to behaviour are specific and limited.
All systems, teaching and management of the school focus on the promotion, establishment and internalisation of socially acceptable and appropriate behaviours for example, the Roselyn House School and The RHISE Centre Code and individual IEBP’s.
The objectives may best be achieved by a mutually supportive whole school approach and a whole staff responsibility to work within the agreed parameters of the Behaviour Policy and its procedures.
Roselyn House School and The RHISE Service endeavours to reinforce the behaviour policy through the valued partnership with parents/ carers and they will be asked to complete behaviour/ emotional literacy profiles to help staff at Roselyn House School and The RHISE Service to develop a greater understanding of their child.
This Policy adheres to the following principles, where it aims to be:
Accessible and easily understood by students, staff, Parents/ Carers and interested parties
Aligned and coherent- it works alongside other key policy documents at Roselyn House School and The RHISE Service
it considers the needs of all students and staff, so all members of the school community can feel safe and that they belong
Consistent and detailed- it has sufficient detail to ensure meaning and consistent implementation by the whole school
it addresses how students will be supported to meet high standards of behaviour reflecting on individual needs in the EHCP.
In addition, this policy aims:
To enable the Headteacher and Deputy Headteacher of Roselyn House School to exercise their responsibility to ensure each child’s access to and progression through the broad and balanced range of National Curriculum subjects; being able to access accreditation as appropriate.
To allow the school to promote the spiritual, moral, cultural, social, mental and physical developments of students and prepare students for the opportunities, responsibilities and experiences of adult life. The policy reinforces those other cross-curricular and thematic activities in school which develop appropriate values for students with regard to society, relationships and the environment.
To work towards a “restraint free environment” in which all children and staff feel safe. Constant monitoring, review and reflection will form the basis to aid this.
To support all teaching, support staff and volunteers who come into contact with students when working within the school.
To establish a positive environment in which every child is encouraged to respond with socially acceptable behaviour to situations which they encounter and that they are comfortable with those situations.
To allow both students and staff to develop an awareness of self and progress towards an emotionally literate school ethos.
To allow students to develop their own strategies in order to manage their Mental Health and wellbeing as effectively as they can moving towards independence.
To provide a feeling of community and belonging for both staff and students by fostering appropriate ‘understanding’ relationships.
Purpose of Policy
To provide a positive environment that acknowledges and rewards socially acceptable behaviour whilst discouraging inappropriate behaviour.
To view students as individuals with individual histories, circumstances, needs, views and responses.
To demonstrate a consistent response to behaviour across the school that is immediate and appropriate.
To provide a secure and predictable structure in which students can work to develop personal behaviour management and self-esteem.
To provide a non-rejecting environment in which the children feel safe to develop emotionally.
To provide a wide range of opportunities, real life and social situations for the students to experience.
To provide opportunities which are equivalent within other forms of provision.
To talk openly within school about thoughts and feelings and encourage young people and staff to gain the confidence to achieve this within the right environments and at the appropriate time.
To evaluate a student’s behaviour which accommodates re-adjustment for each individual as part of an ongoing developmental process and which also accommodates students’ individual histories, circumstances, needs, views and responses.
These aims can be achieved by being attachment aware in the following ways:
Being ‘fair’ is not about everyone getting the same (equality) but about everyone getting what they need (equity).
Understanding that behaviour is a form of communication. In the Code of Practice of SEND in 2014 (updated January 2020) , SEMH replaced SEBD which helps to promote a shift towards viewing behaviour as a communication of an emotional need.
Taking non-judgemental, curious and empathetic attitude towards behaviour. We need to reflect on the feelings and emotions that may drive a certain behaviour rather than the behaviour itself.
We need to understand that our students are vulnerable and not ‘badly behaved’. We need to find out what is making them vulnerable and put the appropriate strategies in place.
We need not to take some behaviours personally and question why a young person is struggling and how do we help through this distress.
Putting relationships first where we have strong relationships and operate as a whole school community where there is connection, inclusion, respect and value for all.
Maintain clear boundaries and expectations. We have to have expectations, routines and structure. This is what makes our young people feel safe. At Roselyn House School and The RHISE Service we pride ourselves on nurture and structure.
We need predictable routines and responses to behaviour which are modelled appropriately.
Certain behaviours should be made explicit and rewards and sanctions an expected response.
Understand that not all behaviours are a matter of choice and not all behaviours are within a young person’s control.
Whole school approach to behaviour and communicating the policy
We have a whole school approach to creating an inclusive and positive school ethos around behaviour. We place a strong emphasis on the emotional health and wellbeing of all members of our school community. SEMH needs are central to the effectiveness of our school and an Attachment Aware approach to our Behaviour Policy.
The NHS and DfE established a National Children and Young People’s Mental Health Taskforce in September 2014 and produced the report: ‘Future in Mind – promoting, protecting and improving our children and young people’s mental health and wellbeing’. This was published in March 2015. This document recognises that attachment relationships have a direct bearing on children’s capacity to succeed in school. It emphasises that relationships and a sense of belonging, are key to good mental health for all, but are essential for children who have experienced multiple relational losses and trauma. The DfE have published Mental health and wellbeing provision in schools October 2018 which outlines the duties on schools to promote and protect the welfare of their students, as set out by Government guidance, ‘Keeping Children Safe In Education’ September 2022 moving to a new updated version in September 2023. There are also duties on schools to ensure students with additional educational needs, including those in relation to mental health, are provided with adequate support to learn, as set out in, ‘Special educational needs and disability code of practice: 0-25 years.
Everyone will always act with courtesy and respect for each other and all students have the right to learn in a safe environment.
This policy is communicated to all members of our community which is an important way of building and maintaining our ethos and positive culture. It makes beaviour expectations transparent to all involved and provides reassurance that responses to behaviour are consistent, fair, proportionate and predictable. This Policy is available on the school website and is sent to families on induction of a new student.
At Roselyn House School and The RHISE Service high expectations of good behaviour pervade all aspects of school life including the culture, ethos and values of our school, how students are taught and encouraged to behave. We have these high expectations regardless of the challenges of behaviour or behaviour associated with an individual students’ SEND as we believe this can help a student develop strategies and improve their coping mechanisms from their individual starting points. This is made apparent to anyone joining or visiting the school and everyone should be treated with dignity, kindness and respect.
The consistent and fair implementation of measures outlined in this policy are central to an effective whole school approach to behaviour across Roselyn House School and The RHISE Service. Even though we are on two sites, we are one school. Consistent implementation creates a predictable environment in order to allow our students to flourish. We appreciate some students require additional support in this area and will reach different points of acceptance at different times.
By having simple, clear and well communicated expectations of behaviour and providing staff with bespoke training around the needs of our students, we allow our students to thrive, achieve and build positive relationships with each other and staff. These are based on predictability, fairness and trust.
Our Behaviour Curriculum
At Roselyn House School and The RHISE Service we model positive behaviour across the whole curriculum. We believe our students should have a readiness to learn, share experiences around individual needs and above all have a mutual respect for everyone in the school community. Positive and acceptable behaviour is taught to all students and encouraged and highlighted over that which is prohibited. We utilise positive reinforcement and reward through learning achievement and positive approaches to learning and conduct. Whilst sanctions are also important, our behaviour curriculum defines the expected behaviours in school rather than just a list of prohibited behaviours. It is centred around what successful behaviour and positives approaches look like. Students are praised and celebrated when they achieve and we follow key routines around school. This may have different approaches across age groups as expectations change and also around the abilities of individual students.
Routines are used to teach and reinforce the behaviours expected of all students. Repeated practices promote the values of the school, positive behavioural norms and the consequences of unacceptable behaviour. Students are expected to discuss this in Form Time, Mentor sessions and in Student Council Meetings.
We recognise that adjustments to routines need to be made for some of our students and they may need time away from routines and their peers in order to give them time to meet expectations. This should be planned and by design where possible. Through the community acceptance of individual need at Roselyn House School and The RHISE Centre, students should have respect for these adjustments and without knowing specific reasons accept that this is a matter of course at school.
Consistent and clear language should be used when acknowledging positive behaviour and addressing misbehaviour.
The role of school leaders
Across Roselyn House School and The RHISE Service the leadership team is highly visible with two Deputy Headteachers and two RHISE/RHS Coordinators based at each respective site. The Business Manager and the Headteacher work across both sites and a whole school approach is taken by the SLT who also attend each site. They routinely engage with students, parents/ carers and all staff on setting and maintaining the behaviour culture and an environment where everyone feels safe and supported.
Our school leaders have a crucial role to play in making sure all staff understand the behavioural expectations and importance of maintaining them. They make sure that all new staff are inducted clearly into the school’s behavioural culture to ensure they understand the rules and routines and how best to support our students in creating the culture of the school.
Specific training is provided in monthly Twilights which enables staff to meet their duties and functions within this policy. Staff also have complimentary training which deals with certain SEND and Mental Health issues which is specific to our students and highlights how this can sometimes affect behaviour and lead to adjustment. We work within Mental Health and behaviour in Schools Guidance and have wellbeing policies for staff and students. (See SEAL incorporating mindfulness Policy and Wellbeing Policy).
We work directly with Educational Psychologists, counsellors, therapists and Mental Health support teams.
The role of teachers and support staff
Staff have an important role in developing a calm and safe environment for students and establishing clear boundaries of acceptable behaviour. Staff should uphold the whole school approach to behaviour by teaching and modelling expected behaviour and positive relationships, so students can see good habits and are confident to ask for help when they need to. They should be attachment aware yet challenge students to meet our expectations and maintain the boundaries of acceptable conduct.
Staff should communicate with every interaction, our school’s expectations, routines, values and standards through teaching and supporting students. They should consider the impact of their own behaviour on the school culture and how they too can uphold rules and expectations. We aim to provide staff with clear guidance on their own conduct through Team Leader meetings and Appraisals. (See Shared Practice Policy).
The role of students
All our students deserve to learn in an environment that is calm, safe, supportive and where they are treated with dignity despite their starting points and individual needs within their EHCP. To achieve this we believe every student should be made aware of our behaviour standards, expectations, where and how to receive support and what consequences their may be to unacceptable behaviour. They should be taught that they have a duty to follow this policy and uphold school rules which contributes to our school culture. They are asked about their experiences and asked to feedback through discussions and questionnaires. This helps in supporting the evaluation, implementation and improvement of this behaviour policy. Each student should be supported to achieve the behaviour standards, strategies provided and adjustments where necessary. This should include an induction which may be repeated throughout the school year. Extra support should be provided where necessary and adjustments to Timetables where appropriate including Outreach programmes introduced (RHISE Programme).
The role of Parents/ carers
The role of Parents/ Carers is crucial in helping us to develop and maintain positive behaviour. To support us, Parents/ Carers are encouraged to get to know this policy and where possible take part in life of the school and culture including Parent’s Evenings, Charity Fun Days and RHISE etc pop up events. They are encouraged to reinforce this policy at home and to support the school’s decisions with regard their child. Where a Parent/ Carer has a concern with management of behaviour they should raise this directly with the school while continuing to work in partnership with us.
Our whole school approach involves Parents/ Carers and we keep them updated on their child’s behaviour, encourage them to celebrate student success and offer support from our RHISE/RHS Co-ordinators to discuss in more depth this and other policies.
Where possible Parents/ Carers are involved in any work following misbehaviour and are encouraged to attend return to school meetings, Intervention/ Outreach meetings and Annual Reviews/ Emergency Reviews.
Behaviour expectations and students with Special Education Needs and/ or Disability (SEND)
All of our students have an EHCP with a variety of SEND diagnosis (See SEND Policy). We at Roselyn House School and The RHISE Service consistently promote high standards of behaviour and outcomes for our students who have often previously had negative educational experiences.
We are aware that some behaviours are more likely to be associated with particular types of SEND such as Autism, speech, language and communication needs and we recognise that the understanding of some verbal instruction can be very different. Behaviour as previously outlined is considered in relation to a student’s SEND but we recognise that not every behaviour is associated with SEND. This is why we get to know our students well and record information within their Personal Learning Plans and are able to take further advice from the SENCO, Deputy Headteachers, RHISE/RHS Co-ordinators and the Headteacher.
A graduated approach is often used to assess, plan, deliver and then review the impact of support provided. We offer individualised timetables, intervention, Outreach, Alternative Provision, therapy and mentor support.
We have a duty under the Equality Act 2010 to take such steps as is reasonable to avoid any substantial disadvantage toa disabled student caused by policies or practices.
Under the Children and Families Act 2014, we have the duty to use ‘best endeavours’ to meet the needs of those with SEND and set out provision appropriate in consultation with the LEA and other bodies for the EHCP.
Through Behaviour Management and Positive Handling Plans we are able to anticipate and plan for any triggers of misbehaviour and put in place the appropriate support to attempt to pre-empt or prevent these. These measure take into account the specific circumstance and requirements of the individual student. All students have these completed on admission and are updated Termly or when intervention is required.
This may include for example:
Short, planned get up and move breaks for student whose SEND means they find it difficult to sit still too long (e.g. ADHD)
Adjusting seating plans to allow a student with visual or hearing impairment to sit in the sight of the teacher
Adjusting uniform requirements for students with sensory issues or has severe skin disorder. (Uniform is available but is optional)
Training for staff in understanding conditions such as Autism
Any preventative measures take into account specific circumstances and requirements of the student concerned.
BEHAVIOUR MANAGEMENT/POSITIVE HANDLING PLAN
Date of Assessment: Click here to enter a date.
Review Date: Click here to enter a date.
Behaviour Management/Positive Handling Plan agreed by:
Consent form dated:
Areas of Concern: (Direct from Serious Incident form – information from prior information/risk assessment)
*Information inserted here*
Trigger Behaviours: (Direct from Serious Incident form – triggers)
*Information inserted here*
Behaviour Details (pen picture and observed behaviour):
Adopting defensive or aggressive postures
Refusing to co-operate
Attempting to abscond
Refusing to speak or dismissive
Rocking or tapping
Shouting and screaming
Making personal and offensive remarks
Use of weapons or missiles
Moving towards danger
Withdrawal from group
Proactive Control Measures (adjustments to prevent behaviours occurring):
Increases self-esteem and confidence
Result in favouring staff members (over attachment)
Short achievable tasks
Increases self-esteem and confidence
Lowers risk of boredom
May disrupt engagement/concentration
Praise and reward
Increases self-esteem and confidence
Encourages good behaviour
Could be over used which results in lack of effectiveness
Time out opportunities
Time to calm down
May abuse this option
Reduces risk of confrontation.
Could result in Student becoming upset.
Gives Student something else to think about.
May not distract Student and will escalate situation.
Gives Student something else to think about.
May not distract Student and will escalate situation.
Firm clear directions
Will respond well to some members of staff.
Can become verbally aggressive.
Can work with certain members of staff.
Student may not understand the humour.
Give some responsibility to student.
Student may not be able to cope with the responsibility and continue in crisis.
Give some responsibility to student.
Student could manipulate and abuse.
Give some responsibility to student.
This could increase Negative behaviour or escalate the situation.
Builds confidence and self-esteem.
Can be deemed as condescending
Can be over used.
Reminder about consequences
Reminds Student of the consequences of His actions.
Can be over used.
Allows Student time to think.
Could be manipulated and abused.
Take up time
Gives Student guidance and help.
Can be deemed as condescending.
Can be overused.
Verbal advice and support
Removal from situation and audience.
Student could refuse to leave the situation or abuse it as a work avoidance tactic.
Removal from situation and audience.
Student may refuse.
Allows Student time to think.
Could be manipulated and abused.
Reactive Control Measures (adjustments once the behaviours are occurring):
Remove from classroom and time out
Removes audience and distractions.
Allows time to calm down
Work avoidance tactic
Alternative room may not be available.
Allows Student to calm his self-down and have some time out.
Reduces the risk of injury to staff and students.
Stops criminal damage.
Can hold grudges.
Medical Conditions: (To be taken directly from Statement and updated as appropriate, e.g. asthma, pregnancy and epilepsy)
Planned Use of Restrictive Physical Interventions:
Physical intervention will be used as an option of last resort when staff perceive that they have no alternative course of action.
It is a necessary response to the following:
Damage to property
Injury to person
Any physical intervention that is thought necessary will primarily aim to make a situation safe for all involved. TEAM TEACH practice and recommended holds should be attempted as soon as possible with the minimal, appropriate force applied for the shortest possible period of time.
Positive Physical Intervention Strategies and Preferred Handling Strategies:
Double Elbow (standing)
1:1 / 2:1
Single Elbow (seated)
1:1 / 2:1
Figure of 4
1:1 / 2:1
Single Elbow (standing)
1:1 / 2:1
1:1 / 2:1
1:1 / 2:1
1:1 / 2:1
1:1 / 2:1
1:1 / 2:1
1:1 / 2:1
De-briefing Process following Incident:
Everyone involved to talk about what happened to reflect, repair and rebuild relationships
Give chance to apologise
Medical checks offered
Recording and Notifications Required:
Parents/Carers notified following incident
Incident recorded in Incident Book
Body Map completed
Inform outside agencies (e.g. Police, Social Worker)
EMERGENCY USE OF RESTRICTIVE PHYSICAL INTERVENTIONS
Emergency use of physical intervention may be required when a student behaves in a way that has not been foreseen by risk assessment. Ideally the use of physical interventions in this situation will be agreed by two members of staff.
Maintaining a positive culture requires constant work and is discussed in weekly vulnerable student meetings with the SLTs responsible, along with monthly SLT Meetings.
At Roselyn House School and The RHISE Service we strive to positively reinforce behaviour which reflects the values of the whole school and prepares our students to engage in learning. Sometimes a student’s behaviour will be unacceptable, this is unavaoidable and students need to understand there are consequences for their behaviour.
Consistency is achieved by adherence to our school’s graded menu of rewards and sanctions detailed below:
We believe that praise should outweigh negative comment.
Placed on own to work
Responsibility – in class
Placed on own to work in classroom
Responsibility – in school
Work finished in own time
Removed from class for short period
Record of achievement
Loss of activity/Friday afternoon
Display of work to others (Headteacher)
Work outside classroom
Display of work on wall
Sent to Headteacher with work
Mention in assembly
Letter/phone call to parent
Involve parents/home visit
Report to parents
Work outside class group/timetable
School certificates for effort
Fines to repair damage – determined by extent of repair
School certificates for achievement
Fines to pay for false fire call - £140
School certificates for termly achievements
Fines to pay for discharge of fire extinguishers - £160
Parents/ carers asked to come to school
Intermittent class reinforcers
Restorative Justice Conferences
Intermittent class reinforcers
Cause and effect meetings
End of day letters
Cool off period away from school
Personal reports to parents/carers by letter/phone call
Involvement of Police
LEA/other agencies asked to come to school
Trip out of school
Others negotiated with the student
Responding to good behaviour
Acknowledging good behaviour encourages repetition and communicates the school community’s expectations and values to all students. Using positive recognition and rewards provides an opportunity for all staff to reinforce the school’s culture and ethos. Positive reinforcements and rewards should be applied clearly and fairly to reinforce the routines, expectations, and norms of our behaviour culture.
Examples of rewards may include:
communicating praise to parents via phone call or written correspondence;
certificates, prize ceremonies or special assemblies;
positions of responsibility, such as prefect status or being entrusted with a particular decision or project; and
whole-class or year group rewards, such as a popular activity
Responding to misbehaviour
When a member of school staff becomes aware of misbehaviour, they should respond predictably, promptly, and assertively in accordance with this policy. The first priority should be to ensure the safety of students and staff and to restore a calm environment. It is important that staff across the wholes school respond in a consistent, fair, and proportionate manner so students know with certainty that misbehaviour will always be addressed. De-escalation techniques can be used to help prevent further behaviour issues arising and recurring following TEAM TEACH training which staff receive at Roselyn House School and The RHISE Centre.
The aims of any response to misbehaviour should be to maintain the culture of the school, restore a calm and safe environment in which all students can learn and thrive and where possible prevent or pre-empt the recurrence of such misbehaviour.
To achieve these aims, a response to behaviour may have various purposes. These include:
: sanctions can often be effective deterrents for a specific student or a general deterrent for all students at the school.
: keeping students safe is a legal duty of all staff. A protective measure in response to inappropriate behaviour, for example, removing a student from a lesson, may be immediate or after assessment of risk.
: to support students to understand and meet the behaviour expectations of the school and reengage in meaningful education. Students will test boundaries, may find their emotions difficult to manage, or may have misinterpreted the rules. Students should be supported to understand and follow the rules. This may be via sanctions, reflective conversations or targeted support/ intervention/ Outreach.
Where appropriate, staff should take account of any contributing factors that are identified after a behaviour incident has occurred: for example, if the student has suffered bereavement, experienced abuse or neglect, has mental health needs, has been subject to bullying, has needs including SEND (including any not previously identified), has been subject to criminal exploitation, or is experiencing significant challenges at home.
Acceptable forms of sanction:
These may include:
a verbal reprimand and reminder of the expectations of behaviour;
the setting of written tasks such as an account of their behaviour;
loss of privileges – for instance, the loss of a prized responsibility;
detention (see later detail);
school based community service, such as tidying a classroom;
regular reporting including early morning reporting; scheduled uniform checks; or being placed “on report” for behaviour monitoring;
a cool off period; and
in the most serious of circumstances, the school admitting they can no longer meet the individual’s needs and a planned move will take place.
We should always consider whether the misbehaviour gives cause to suspect that a student is suffering, or is likely to suffer, harm. Where this may be the case as set out in Part 1 of Keeping children safe in education, school staff should follow the Safeguarding Policy and speak to the designated safeguarding lead (or deputy). They will consider if pastoral support, an early help intervention or a referral to children’s social care is appropriate.
Alternative arrangements for sanctions can be considered on a case-by-case basis for any student where the school believes an alternative arrangement would be more effective for that particular student, based on their knowledge of that student’s personal circumstances. The school should have regard to the impact on consistency and perceived fairness overall when considering any alternative arrangements.
What the law allows
Teachers can sanction students whose conduct falls below the standard which could reasonably be expected of them. This means that if a student misbehaves, breaks a rule or fails to follow a reasonable instruction, they can apply a sanction on that student. (Section 91 (3) of the Education and Inspections Act 2006)
All staff can issue sanctions any time students are in school or elsewhere under the charge of a member of staff, including on school visits. This also applies when a student’s misbehaviour occurs outside of school.
A sanction will be lawful if it satisfies the following three conditions:
a) The decision to sanction a student is made by a paid member of school staff (but not one who the headteacher has decided should not do so) or an unpaid member of staff authorised by the headteacher;
b) The decision to sanction the student and the sanction itself are made on the school premises or while the school is under the lawful charge of the member of staff; and
c) It does not breach any other legislation (for example in respect of equality, special educational needs and human rights) and it is reasonable in all the circumstances. (Section 91 of the Education and Inspections Act 2006)
In considering whether a sanction is reasonable in all circumstances, one must consider whether it is proportionate in the circumstances of the case and consider any special circumstances relevant to its imposition including the student’s age, any special educational needs or disability they may have, and any religious requirements affecting them. (Section 91 of the Education and Inspections Act 2006)
The Headteacher may limit the power or extend the power to discipline and sanction to volunteers.
Schools should consistently and fairly promote high standards of behaviour for all students and provide additional support where needed to ensure students can achieve and learn as well as possible.
A school should not assume that because a student has SEND, it must have affected their behaviour on a particular occasion – this is a question of judgement for the school on the facts of the situation.
Schools should consider whether a student’s SEND has contributed to the misbehaviour and if so, whether it is appropriate and lawful to sanction the student. In considering this, schools should refer to the Equality Act 2010 and schools guidance.
The school should also consider whether any reasonable adjustments need to be made to the sanction in response to any disability the student may have. It is also important for the schools to seek to try and understand the underlying causes of behaviour and whether additional support is needed.
Corporal punishment by school staff is illegal in all circumstances. Including deprivation of food and drink, withholding medication, medical or dental treatment, wearing distinctive or inappropriate clothing and any sanction with the intent to humiliate or ridicule.
Supporting students following a sanction
Following a sanction, strategies should be considered to help all students to understand how to improve their behaviour and meet the behaviour expectations of Roselyn House School and The RHISE Service. These might include:
a targeted discussion with the student, including explaining what they did wrong, the impact of their actions, how they can do better in the future and what will happen if their behaviour fails to improve. This may also include advising them to apologise to the relevant person, if appropriate;
a phone call with parents/ carers, and the Virtual School Head for looked after children;
inquiries into the student’s conduct with staff involved in teaching, supporting or supervising the student in school;
inquiries into circumstances outside of school, including at home, conducted by the designated safeguarding lead or a deputy;
return to school or restorative justice meeting or
considering whether the support for behaviour management being provided remains appropriate.
Designated staff should be appropriately trained to deliver these interventions. These interventions are often part of a wider approach that involves the wellbeing and mental health of the student.
A detention is a commonly used sanction, often used as a deterrent to future misbehaviour. It is typically a short period where the student is required to remain under supervision of school staff when their peers have been allowed to go home or to break.
When used, it should be done so consistently and fairly by staff. This process should be well known to all students and staff. This should not impede on other student’s transport arrangements and alternative transport arrangements should be made for the students involved in detention which could include Parents/ Carers picking their child up if appropriate.
What the law allows
Teachers have authority to issue detention to students, including same-day detentions. At Roselyn House School and The RHISE Service that detention (including detention outside of school hours) can be used as a possible sanction if authorised by the Headteacher or a Deputy Headteacher.
A detention outside normal school hours will be lawful if it meets the following conditions:
during a lunchtime detention if students are given time to eat, drink and go to the toilet;
the student is under 18 (unless the detention is during lunch break);
the headteacher has communicated to students and parents that detentions outside school sessions may be used; and
the detention is held at any of the following times:
a) any school day where the student does not have permission to be absent;
b) weekends during term - except a weekend during, preceding or following the half term break; or
c) non-teaching days – usually referred to as ‘training days’, ‘INSET days’ or ‘non-contact days’, except if it falls on a public holiday, on a day which precedes the first day of term, during the half-term break, or after the last school day of the term.25 68.
The headteacher can decide which members of staff can issue detentions. This is limited to Deputy Headteachers for after school detentions but all staff can issue lunchtime and breaktime.
Parental consent is not required for detentions that satisfy these conditions but Parent/ Carers should be notified due to the nature and vulnerability of our students.
With lunchtime detentions, staff should allow reasonable time for the student to eat, drink and use the toilet.
School staff should not issue a detention where there is any reasonable concern that doing so would compromise a student’s safety. When ensuring that a detention outside school hours is reasonable, staff issuing the detention should consider the following points:
whether the detention is likely to put the student at increased risk;
whether the student has known caring responsibilities;
whether the detention timing conflicts with a medical appointment;
whether there is time to inform the Parent/ Carers- this does not have to be done but we feel due to the vulnerability of our students it is best practice
whether suitable travel arrangements can reasonably be made
The use of reasonable force
Detailed advice is available in Use of Reasonable Force – advice for school leaders, staff and governing bodies. Headteachers and all school staff should read this guidance.
There are circumstances when it is appropriate for staff in schools to use reasonable force to safeguard children. The term ‘reasonable force’ covers the broad range of actions used by staff that involve a degree of physical contact to control or restrain children. ‘Reasonable’ in these circumstances means ‘using no more force than is needed’.
Members of staff have the power to use reasonable force to prevent students committing an offence, injuring themselves or others, or damaging property and to maintain good order and discipline at the school or among students.(Section 93 of Education and Inspections Act 2006)
Headteachers and authorised school staff may also use such force as is reasonable given the circumstances when conducting a search for knives or weapons, alcohol, illegal drugs, stolen items, tobacco, fireworks, pornographic images or articles that they reasonably suspect have been or are likely to be used to commit an offence or cause harm. Force may not be used to search for other items banned under the school rules (Section 550ZB of The Education Act 1996)
When considering using reasonable force staff should, in considering the risks, carefully recognise any specific vulnerabilities of the student, including SEND, mental health needs or medical conditions and where possible refer to the Behaviour Management and Positive Handling Plan. Emergency intervention that is proportionate and necessary may have to be used on occasion.
Positive handling and physical intervention – for further guidelines see Management of Violent Behaviour
Positive handling should involve minimum reasonable force and should seek to avoid injury.
Positive handling should not be used if there is a likelihood of staff injury.
Positive handling should only be used with professional judgement.
Whenever possible try to ensure two or more members of staff are available.
Positive handling/ physical intervention should be entered on the Incident Record Form and recorded on CPoms, a copy being available for the Headteacher/ Deputy Headteacher and where appropriate, an LEA representative.
A specific handling policy will be written into the IEBP for those students whose behaviour presents a probability that physical/ containment/ positive handling is a likely situation.
Searching, screening and confiscation
Detailed guidance for schools can be found in Searching, screening and confiscation at school.
School staff can confiscate, retain or dispose of a student’s property as a disciplinary penalty in the same circumstances as other disciplinary penalties. The law protects staff from liability in any proceedings brought against them for any loss or damage to items they have confiscated, provided they acted lawfully. Staff should consider whether the confiscation is proportionate and consider any special circumstances relevant to the case (Section 94 of Education and Inspections Act 2006)
Removal from classrooms
Removal is where a student, for serious disciplinary reasons, is required to spend a limited time out of the classroom at the instruction of a member of staff. This is to be differentiated from circumstances in which a student is asked to step outside of the classroom briefly for a conversation with a staff member and asked to return following this or planned to work away from a class group. The use of removal should allow for continuation of the student’s education in a supervised setting. The continuous education provided may differ to the mainstream curriculum but should still be meaningful for the student. (See Behaviour Support and Physical Intervention Policy)
Removal should be used for the following reasons:
a) to maintain the safety of all students and to restore stability following an unreasonably high level of disruption;
b) to enable disruptive students to be taken to a place where education can be continued in a managed environment; and
c) to allow the student to regain calm in a safe space.
Removal should be distinguished from the use of separation spaces/ positive outcome zones for non-disciplinary reasons. For instance, where a student is taken out of the classroom to regulate their emotions because of identified sensory overload as part of a planned response.
The Headteacher should:
a) make clear that removal may be used as a response to serious misbehaviour as part of this policy;
b) maintain overall strategic oversight of the school’s arrangements for any removals, as set out in this policy;
c) make sure the reasons that may lead to students being removed are transparent and known to all staff and students;
d) outline in the principles governing the length of time that it is appropriate for a student to be in removal through support from a member of SLT to advise staff and monitor the situation;
e) ensure that the removal location is in an appropriate area of the school and stocked with appropriate resources, is a suitable place to learn and refocus, and is supervised by trained members of staff- this would normally be a quiet area or positive outcome zone which are situation across both sites; and
f) design a clear process for the reintegration of any student in removal into the classroom when appropriate and safe to do so- on the SLT approval.
At Roselyn House School and The RHISE Service we shall collect, monitor and analyse removal data internally in order to interrogate repeat patterns and the effectiveness of the use of removal. We will make data-based decisions to consider whether frequently removed students may benefit from additional and alternative approaches or whether specific departments or teachers may require more support.
Separately, we will analyse the collected data to identify patterns relating to students sharing any of the protected characteristics and the removal policy is not having a disproportionate effect on students sharing particular protected characteristics. (See Single Equality Policy)
When dealing with individual removal cases, headteachers and teachers should:
a) consider whether any assessment of underlying factors of disruptive behaviour is needed;
b) facilitate reflection by the student on the behaviour that led to their removal from the classroom and what they can do to improve and avoid such behaviour in the future;
c) ensure that students are never locked in the room of their removal. There may be exceptional situations in which it is necessary to physically prevent a student from leaving a room in order to protect the safety of students and staff from immediate risk, but this would be a safety measure and not a disciplinary sanction and is covered in the Behaviour Support and Physical Intervention Policy;
d) ensure that the Children and Families Act 2014, the Equality Act 2010 and regulations under those Acts are being complied with;and
e) if a student has a social worker, including if they have a Child in Need plan, a Child Protection plan or are looked-after, notify their social worker.
If the student is looked-after, ensure their Personal Education Plan is appropriately reviewed and amended and notify their Virtual School Head.
It may be felt more appropriate that a student have an individualised timetable, reduced hours or Outreach to work towards a positive change. This would be agreed by the Headteacher and Deputy Headteachers (s)/ Co-ordinators and involved parties before actioned.
Behaviour outside school premises
Schools have the power to sanction students for misbehaviour outside of the school premises. This would be specifically if it involved other students from the school and online conduct.
The decision to sanction a student who is under the control or charge of a member (s) of staff at the school whilst off site or on a visit/ trip/residential would follow similar procedures to those on site. Staff wear ID badges which have information for the public as to the nature of our students and why physical intervention may be required in the event of an incident.
Preventing recurrence of misbehaviour
We pride ourselves at Roselyn House School and The RHISE Service for catering for individual and specific need which can some times prove challenging as we have a no exclusion policy. We look at adapting the educational offer to our students which will match their needs and can be flexible at different times in their school career. This is achieved by consistent discussion, tracking and recording on CPoms which is fed into regular meetings for vulnerable and more difficult to reach students.
We build individual programmes through our RHISE Service which may include a mixture of classroom/ 1:1/ 2:1 learning, Outreach, Vocational studies/ Alternative provision, specific interventions.
This helps in students understanding behavioural expectations and allows them to have positive experiences; often bringing out the best in them educationally, personally and preparing them for life beyond oursschool. We recognise that some students need more support than others at times and this needs to be provided as proactively as possible. We use a graduated response which is used to assess, plan, deliver and review. We set timescales for these programmes which could be for a week or for the academic year. We record, monitor and report back to the LA. Regular review meetings are held and programmes are implemented through agreement of all parties involved, including the young person.
When we have increased concerns we trigger early help assessments and sometimes statutory assessments which go beyond educational need.(See Working Together to Safeguard Children and Early Help Assessment Offer) Our programmes can also include therapy both onsite or with outside providers. We aim to ‘get it right’ for our students. This includes if it is the appropriate time to reintegrate a student back into the main body of the school. For some of our students they may remain on individualised programmes. There are RHISE programmes for all age groups, all needs and based at Roselyn House School and The RHISE Centre.
Behavioural monitoring and evaluation
We have a clear monitoring and evaluation cycle which includes weekly, monthly, termly and annual analysis. This assists with developing an accurately reported behaviour culture and is carried out by SLT.
We collect data on:
Behaviour incident data, including removal from the classroom which is recorded on CPoms
Attendance, cool off periods
Incidents of searching, screening and confiscation
Surveys for staff, students, Parents/ Carers and other stakeholders on their perceptions and experiences of the school behaviour culture
School leaders and staff analyse data being objective and from differing perspectives; at school level, group level, and individual staff and student level. We pose questions and identify possible factors contributing to the behaviour, system problems or failure to provide appropriate support. This includes analysing data by protected characteristics.
By applying Attachment Aware principles and DfE guidance to our Behaviour Policy, we aim to encourage an inclusive approach which achieves better outcomes for our students at Roselyn House School and The RHISE Service. This will empower staff to respond in a way that is empathetic but is within appropriate boundaries, firm but kind. We should not confuse empathy with sympathy or condone/avoid consequences for negative behaviours. When young people feel heard, understood and cared about they begin to express emotions in a more positive way. This benefits staff and student wellbeing and Mental Health and provides a more positive culture within the school where learning can take place.
Reviewed: June 2023
Student Behaviour Management Guidance for Staff
Behaviour should be viewed in relation to its antecedents within the four main areas.
Placement of students e.g. seating arrangements, organisations to maximise effective work and minimise disruption.
Placement of resources.
Preparation of lessons.
Preparation of resources.
The working environment.
Teaching styles – based on varieties of: supported self-study, group to individual.
Learning styles – passive or active.
Appropriate applicable content.
Differentiated to individual students.
Knowledge of individual students.
Creation of a positive environment.
Effective use of rewards and sanctions.
Appropriate and effective use of un-timetabled time.
Sensitivity to flash points.
Awareness of potential problem areas.
The consequences of an individual’s behaviour should be consistent to the individual both in their understanding and experience.
SOCIAL SKILLS MANAGEMENT
Staff monitor students’ behaviour during staff/student contact.
Staff/student interaction involves consistent, informal social education.
Staff explain differing social registers and encourage acceptable patterns of student responses in both formal and informal situations.
Various strategies are used. For example, at meal times staff who supervise a group at a table will curtail unnecessary movement around the dining hall, monitor collection of food and drink, encourage and maintain an acceptable standard of table manners, supervise the moving of tables and stacking of chairs. They regulate the social interaction between individual students.Students are encouraged to adopt acceptable eating behaviour.
Mutual respect and role modelling are the expectation of the entire community within Roselyn House School. By showing mutual respect and demonstrating social registers, students will overtime perform these their selves. This includes social pleasantries, ‘asking how people are’, wishing people well, knocking on doors and referring to staff by Title and Surname.
Sanctions and rewards apply to homophobic, biphobic and transphobic bullying and language.
We promote respect and equality across all protected characteristics, including sexual orientation and gender identity, and prepare students for life in diverse 21st Century Britain.
When students exceed the baseline of acceptable behaviour in an extreme manner, it is reported on an Incident Monitoring Form.It is then passed on to the Headteacher or Deputy Headteacher. A copy is then placed in the student’s file.
Accordingly, when behaviour of a noteworthy merit is observed, that too is reported to the Class Teacher/Learning Support Assistant/ Mentor or a Headteacher’s Commendation awarded. The Headteacher’s Award is presented in assembly on a Friday afternoon where the student will receive a certificate, and their work displayed on the Headteacher’s Board. The certificate is also sent digitally to those who receive one. A file of previous exemplary work is kept in the school office.
Some variance in staff tolerance levels is inevitable. It is the individual’s role to liaise with other staff to share information. Mr Birkenhead is available to help offer advice.
Informal observation of students within a group enables staff to identify behaviours. This information will advise the planning of the student’s IEBP. The IEBP will be shared with the child and parents/ carers and targets presented on the child’s academic records, including, annual reviews etc.
The IEBPs and lesson tracking will identify trends, assess student’s strengths/ weaknesses and evaluate the various actions taken. (Carousel throughout the year).
Some specific, unacceptable, recurring behaviours will be identified and followed up in Mentor sessions, Morning workshops or specific planned individual interventions.
Staff formulate, implement and evaluate strategies then plan provision to reduce or alter unacceptable behaviours against specific time scales in the child’s Individual Education and Behaviour Plan (IEBP) and on their Positive Handling Plan.
Staff can request staff meetings, case conferences and external support to determine appropriate management policies for students who display extreme patterns of behaviour.
PRINCIPLES OF BEHAVIOUR MANAGEMENT
The concept of PUNISHMENT has not been found to be effective in altering patterns of behaviour in children with Social, Emotional and Mental Health Difficulties.
Punishment might create frustration in the student, which could be vented on a victim later.
Our alternative is to use sanctions that are a logical consequence of unacceptable behaviours in order that the child may begin to take responsibility for their own actions.
Similarly, acts of good behaviour need to be recognised and positively reinforced.
Such strategies are not guaranteed to succeed. They take a lot of patience, require an appropriate timescale and flexibility of implementation, but have an optimum likelihood of altering unacceptable student behaviour.
The formulation of positive strategies is dependent in many variables and is under constant review. Some ‘logical’ strategies fail whilst more ‘unorthodox’ one’s work. So, it is important to appreciate the unpredictable nature of a child’s reaction when deciding which strategy to employ.
On some occasions there may be unforeseen adverse reaction to a considered strategy.
Strategies are more likely to succeed if they are agreed with the student, fully understood by all concerned, undertaken against an appropriate time-scale, have an easily achievable objective and are evaluated and rewarded with praise to enhance self-esteem. Pastoral times often address the issues.
We advocate an ‘Authoritative’ versus ‘Authoritarian’ approach where adults are ‘in control’ versus ‘controlling.
We want students to be able to be themselves and often act out being ‘a child’ in a safe environment where they are free to become who they are.
We should never blame others when we feel stuck and support understanding everyone is doing the best, they can at the time with the resources they have. We should consistently review practice and support each other with the young person at the centre of everything we do.
The Secure Base Model (Schofield and Beek 2014) is a resilience- based model that provides a framework for therapeutic caregiving that focuses on caregivers and young people. Over time positive caregiving provides a secure base over five dimensions which can help the young person explore, learn and develop in a positive direction.
Availability: helping the young person to trust.
Sensitivity: helping the young person to manage feelings.
Acceptance: building the young person’s self-esteem.
Co-operation: Helping the young person to feel effective.
Family Membership: Helping the young person to belong.
Provides a SECURE BASE which for many of our students is SCHOOL.
MANAGEMENT STRATEGY RANGE
For INDIVIDUAL STUDENTS there are a range of management strategies that can be used to encourage acceptable behaviour. The following suggestions are strategies which encourage self-control, self-esteem, achievement and develop sound relationships on an individual basis:
Emotional Literacy Work
Rewards/Points Sheets, IEPB
Minor areas of responsibility
Extended areas of responsibility
(earned through extended effort)
It is important that achievement and improvement, in ANY area, should be acknowledged and applauded. Staff seek to actively promote regular achievement to develop self-motivation in students.
Similarly, for GROUPS OF YOUNG PEOPLE there are a range of management strategies that can be used to encourage acceptable behaviour. These include:
A non-academic classroom activity
Class merit trips
These strategies are controlled by staff, used cautiously, set against an overall time scale, and undertaken through consultation with, and the prior approval of the Headteacher.
Strategies that might work for one member of staff do not necessarily transfer effectively to others. Individual staff develop a personal “repertoire” tailored to the individual needs of their students. Comments and observations from other staff can often prove pertinent.
Many strategies will alter behaviour, but their effect if frequently short lived and cannot always be effectively repeated. However, even limited success is positive and when recorded shows a trend towards achievement which gradually improves self-esteem and alters behaviour.
It is better to always think in POSITIVE terms and be objective. Negative attitudes have a very limited role in meeting the needs of children with severe emotional and behavioural difficulties.
DETERMINATION OF NEEDS
The need to realise your own
potential and self-fulfilment.
Needs for art and symmetry.
Needs for knowledge and understanding.
Needs for deserved praise.
LOVE AND BELONGING
The need to affiliate.
The need to be free from fear, to be able to depend upon someone.
The need for food, warmth, shelter, etc.
If staff become aware of needs other than academic ones these will be discussed at staff meetings and appropriate agencies informed. This is in order to work in a multi-disciplinary way as identified in “Working Together”.
When determining children’s needs it is helpful to do so against a specific framework. When assessing student’s needs staff may consider the Hierarchy of Needs developed by Abraham Maslow (see diagram above).
It is unlikely that higher order needs can be effectively addressed if the lower order have not been met.
Children frequently mask their true needs. For instance, it is common for students to direct anger and frustration at displacement targets, whilst the true cause lies in a different direction. These anxieties are usually based in unresolved social needs. To resolve the problem, accurate identification of the cause is required.
Staff may expend much effort and time in meeting lower order needs so that work tasks can be successfully undertaken.
There are many impediments on the path to achievement. These include short concentration span, disruptive behaviour, testing-out behaviour, attention-seeking behaviour, displacement activities, frustration, fear of failure, fear of new work tasks, violent mood swings, destruction of work and many other factors, all of which must be addressed or contained, by the teacher.
The end-product of work achieved often does not reflect the considerable effort involved. Even so the masterpiece frequently appears slap-dash and comparable to the product of a much younger child.
Our students have had long experience of academic failure, social rejection and alienation. They feigned unconcern for achievement at the slightest pretext, but they do respond to praise. Staff build on success, not failure.
Progress is frequently slow, fragmented and often impeded by behaviour problems, low attendance and other inhibiting variables. Flexibility is required and a wide range of Teaching/ Learning strategies are employed.
Student’s personal and social development relies heavily on the ability of staff to accurately identify and meet social and academic needs. Determining children’s needs with accuracy is best achieved on an individual basis with the student, an ideal use of Learning Support Mentor Sessions.
Staff work towards providing an environment where children experience consistency, safety and stability through which students can achieve and grow. In doing so developing an emotionally literate ethos.
When identifying possible target behaviours staff review relevant records.
Staff are required to set behaviour targets for each student in their Learning Support Worker Group on the IEBP record in the following manner:
After discussion staff identity target behaviour.
Staff target behaviour in terms of observed social behaviour.
State strategies and provision intended to alter target behaviour.
Feedback IEBP to staff briefing.
Inform student of the target and negotiate time scale if appropriate.
Evaluate and comment upon effective outcomes.
Record targets in teaching and learning folders.
All targets should be SMART:
To set behavioural targets, staff assess behaviour in the following way:
Observed behaviour is stated in exact terms, generalisations for e.g.
‘He hits children when passing their seat’.... NOT....’He is disruptive’.
Specific behaviour can be altered. Generalisations are “fuzzy” to deal with in terms of developing control strategies.
Behaviour targets relate to classroom and out of class behaviours. A formal Observation Assessment is continually being developed with the School.
The starting point should be short, clearly achievement targets that will ensure success and promote increased self-esteem. These can then be extended as appropriate.
Success relies on positive attitudes, a sensitivity to the student’s responses and the imaginative ability to provide a variety of context for students to practice positive self-management.
MANAGEMENT OF VIOLENT BEHAVIOUR
Aspects of behaviour common in students who display severe emotional and mental health difficulties.
Many students experience extreme mood swings which may involve a range of behaviours that demonstrate an emotional fragility.
At such times students can react to their circumstances with increasing hostility and aggression.
Disruptive behaviour is often a symptom of fear, failure or frustration. Frequently, children do not identify the true cause of their anxiety or emotional distress but fixate on an alternative “supposed” cause.
Real or imagined slights, minor disruptive incidents, or tensions within the teaching group, can provoke triggering incidents which invoke hostile responses in an emotionally fragile student.
With or without staff support to defuse the student’s tension and frustrated behaviour, the child may display an outburst of violence.
Outbursts of violence may be exhibited, the cause of which may originate out of the school or even to the child’s history.
INITIAL MANAGEMENT OF DISRUPTIVE BEHAVIOUR
The level and nature of appropriate staff support, or intervention, will wherever possible depend on the attitude and behaviour of the student.
When the staff observe tension, the initial approach should be low key and appropriate.
The student’s response determines the route by which staff manage the child’s difficulties. In many cases it is possible to divert the child away from violent outcomes.
In some cases, the student will dismiss all avoidance options, suggested by staff and persistently escalate aggressive behaviour towards confrontation and a violent outcome.
Some situations can escalate very quickly.
During an escalation staff should decide whether to summon support to take other measures to safeguard the health and safety of all present.
PRINCIPLES GOVERNING MANAGEMENT DECISIONS
Staff may use many options and strategies to manage disaffected students. The selection of specific management techniques depends, in part, on the personality, character and temperament of individual staff. No set of strategies guarantee a successful outcome to behavioural confrontations. However, the following principles should govern management decisions:
It is essential that staff, when managing disruptive students, should remain objective and calm, in both speech and actions. It is not possible to effectively manage students when one becomes subjective and “heated” by the circumstances.
It is important to listen and respond quietly to the student, rather than overwhelm the child with loud and insistent directives (loud, nagging demands).
If no immediate solution is obvious, ask, if appropriate, if one may deal with the difficulty at an agreed later time. Imposing an immediate “solution” may not dispel the student’s frustration, or defuse unacceptable behaviour, whereas time-distancing problems can (sometimes) do.
Avoid attitudes becoming polarised. Staff should keep their position flexible for as long as possible, without losing their objective. One should rarely push towards a confrontation.
Always maintain positive attitudes that are constructive. By stressing positive behaviours regularly, one reinforces desired attitudes in students. Refer to the children’s previous achievements and promote self-esteem.
In confrontations, negative factors should be stated in a neutral tone of voice. Factual statements should be used as the basis for staff/student discussion.
Always “clarify” options and consequences, rather that impose directives or make unachievable “threats”. Students must be made aware that it is they who make the decisions and that those decisions have obvious consequences. They make choices.
Create “diversionary” displacement activities, involving other people in order to dispel the student’s aggression. Resist becoming “cornered” in an argument, one becomes defensive very easily, avoid it. It takes two to sustain arguments.
Decide, when appropriate, to involve other adults in support. Management of disruptive behaviour requires individual, undistracted attention. Supporting adults can encourage rational, sympathetic, supportive attitudes in the other group members, in order to “talk round” the aggressive student.
When support is available, remove the student from an “unhelpful” environment. Don’t allow negative peer group “encouragement”. Withdrawal can often enable staff and students to focus more clearly on difficulties and resolve them through two-way discussion or conversation.
Staff must assess the risks, promote physical safety and do everything possible to prevent injury.
PRINCIPLES GOVERNING POSITIVE HANDLING OF VIOLENT STUDENTS
When aggressive students escalate confrontations to a violent outcome, staff, as far as possible, should promote physical safety for all students involved. This may require positive handling of aggressive students.
No management strategies, including positive handling, which involve the deliberate ill-treatment of children by staff are acceptable (e.g. pulling hair, punching, emotional abuse, etc).
Violent students may be positively handled by being held by the forearm, withdrawn, if appropriate, or seated until calm. The Team-Teach methods will always be used.
In extreme circumstances, such as the violent student attempting injury to self or others, the student should be brought to the ground gradually by the application of mechanical advantage and should be held, if possible, in a front recovery position on the floor and held until calm. If the student is kicking out at others, a third member of staff may be required to hold the student’s legs.
In exceptional circumstances with very strong and aggressive children and young people it may be necessary to employ the use of Team Teach Ground Advanced Recovery Holds. Staff involved in such strategies will make strenuous efforts to the ground recovery safeguards published by Team Teach.
Later when calm the student should be asked to be seated, if they so wish, and discuss the reason for the outburst. Discussion should include other, more acceptable, options or decisions through which the causes of the violent outburst could have been resolved. This follow up action is the crucial element of support for violent children. It is essential that staff devote enough time to this aspect of management of violent behaviour. An Incident Reflection Form may be used to “de-brief” the child.
Any injury should be examined, treated and recorded by the qualified First Aid staff.
The incident must be recorded on the Incident Monitoring Record and reported to the Headteacher and/or Deputy Headteacher and the incident recorded as a serious incident. Those involved will be advised of the course of action they may wish to take. For serious criminal damage and/ or assault offences, the Police may be contacted, and this could result in the young person being prosecuted. Roselyn House School will work closely with all parties involved and will follow the Safe School’s Partnership Agreement with Lancashire Constabulary.
For assault (by student on student or student on staff or staff on student or parent on staff etc) the Headteacher and/ or Deputy Headteacher should be notified and the incident recorded as a serious incident. Those involved will be advised of the course of action they may wish to take. In the case of an alleged assault, the Senior Leadership Team will speak directly to the alleged victim and they will be asked if Police involvement is required. In the case of an alleged assault on a student, parents/ carers will be consulted also. If a student is subsequently arrested following the Police being informed then a ‘cool off period’ will be put into place for the alleged perpetrator and a meeting set up with the LEA and parents/ carers and any other agencies that may be involved. This process will adhere to Roselyn House School’s Exclusion Policy Guidelines. The young person out of school will continue to be supported by Roselyn House School and education provided. A meeting will be arranged within a reasonable time scale in order to discuss the outcome of any prosecution/conviction. If the length before prosecution is prolonged, an individual package of education will be provided off the school site. This may apply in the case of a student who has allegedly assaulted another student(s). By providing such a ‘cool off period’ for a student, it allows the Police/ School to investigate the incident without prejudice. It stops any further incidents occurring or discrimination forming. It is a system which helps keep both the alleged victim and alleged perpetrator safe from any further risk. If there is no conviction following a Police investigation, then the young person will return to school following a Restorative Justice Meeting and be provided with supported re-integration. If the young person is convicted, then a discussion will take place as to whether the placement is still viable for the young person or whether an alternative, individualised package should be put into place. This may consist of learning/ teaching off site and vocational placements, for example.
A list of “Team Teach” trained and authorised staff will be detailed in the staff room.
All staff, however, may support and the Team Teach “help protocol” will allow them to play their part in the process. All staff are obliged to act within their “duty of care”, however there is an expectation that authorised and trained staff will be utilised first and foremost with regards to a positive handling intervention.
Staff and children involved in positive handling will receive a de-brief with their Line Manager or the Headteacher, whichever is most appropriate.
THE POSITIVE HANDLING OF A VIOLENT STUDENT
IT IS CONSIDERED THAT ACTION UNDER THIS HEADING WILL NORMALLY ONLY BE NECESSARY IN A VERY SMALL NUMBER OF INSTANCES.
Prior to exercising containment, the staff should advise/warn the student that this is about to happen.
If it becomes necessary to physically contain/ hold a violent student to avoid injury, the amount of force used must be the minimum necessary to hold the student safely. Any offensive act towards a child such as punching, hitting or slapping is totally unacceptable. Sudden violent pushing which results in the child/ young person falling over is also unacceptable, whereas a steady push or pull to separate the aggressor from the victim might be appropriate. Staff will be operating within the specified guidelines and their actions will be evaluated in this context after any incident of violent behaviour.
The length of time a student is contained/ held, and the degree of force used will be the minimum necessary to achieve the immediate objective of regaining control of the situation. As soon as it is safe, positive handling should be gradually relaxed to allow the child to regain self-control.
Whenever possible, a member of staff faced with a situation where physical intervention is thought to be necessary should call for assistance so that there are at least two members of staff present when a student is being contained/ held. If more than one person exercises the positive handling, less strength is required, and the risk of injury is reduced. However, it is important to remember that the greater number of staff involved, the less efficient a positive handling procedure becomes. Communication between staff can break down, resulting in a melee of arms, legs and raised voices.
If it is necessary to contain/ hold a girl, a female member of staff must be present from the earliest possible time.
Throughout the exercise of containment/ positive handling, the student should be spoken to in a quiet and soothing manner to encourage the speedy return of calm and self-control. The staff holding should make it clear that the student will be released as soon as calm is restored.
At no time during or after positive handling must clothing be forcibly removed from a student.
Footwear may need to be removed to prevent damage/ injury.
Data analysis of records will be made at regular intervals and appropriate evaluations discussed with all staff.
METHODS OF POSITIVE HANDLING
A situation should be made safe and where possible Team Teach Positive Handling Methods used.
In some circumstances a small child can be held sufficiently to calm down by an adult putting an arm around the child holding the child’s arm or shoulders. Care is needed if arms are held since a struggle could result in an arm being wrenched or broken. The risk is minimised if the other arm is held. Generally, the most useful form of positive handling is to hold the student with both arms in a “wrap”.
The above method of positive handling may not be suitable for an older child or young person, but the positive handling applied should not extend beyond holding with both arms engaged and employing controlled use of the weight of the body. At no stage of positive handling should there be any offensive behaviour towards a student/child. The positive handling should be applied in order to defend a student from harming himself/herself or others.
The positive handling of a very violent young person or large stature is likely to place the staff restraining in some danger of injury, and the risk will be reduced if other staff are called. On no account should members of staff attempt to out-wrestle a large and violent aggressor merely to re-establish control. If this sort of incident occurs, then the Police should be called, and the staff effort should be directed towards the protection of themselves and other students.
Training on Team Teach Positive Handling does not include techniques which rely on grips to joints of the body, which cause pain or risk of injury if the person under positive handling resists. On no account should a student be held by the neck. Techniques should rely on mechanical advantage and power (biomechanical efficiency) of the staff imposing the positive handling to prevent the child or young person moving his arms and, where necessary, legs. The most appropriate form of positive handling should be used with the minimum of physical contact.
Members of staff who are attacked by adults should not try to restrain them. The member of staff concerned should attempt to isolate him or herself from the aggressor and call the Police.
Inclusive with the Team Teach system of negative behaviour management is the requirement that staff will receive regular training in deflection, diffusion, minimising behaviours and with the positive handling. An ongoing system of practice will ensure that all staff are aware of correct procedures.
EXEMPLAR SPECIFIC HANDLING POLICY
Physical intervention will only be used as an option of last resort when staff perceive that they have no alternative course of action.
A Behaviour Management Plan – incorporating Positive Handling Plan will be completed during an individual student’s initial assessment period; where at risk reduction will be considered.
The plan will provide a history of strategies which have tried and failed or succeeded. These will include:
Proactive interventions to prevent risk of challenging behaviour.
Early interventions to manage risk of challenging behaviour.
Reactive interventions to respond to adverse outcomes.
The plan will be reviewed termly in collaboration with students, staff and parents/ carers.
On admission to the school, parents/ carers and students will agree to the planned use of restrictive interventions and a consent form will be signed.
Emergency use of physical intervention may be required when a student behaves in a way that has not been foreseen by risk assessment. Ideally the use of physical interventions in this situation will be agreed by two staff members.
CONFISCATION OF INAPPROPRIATE ITEMS
There are two sets of legal provisions which enable school staff to confiscate items from students:
1) The general power to discipline (as described in the bullets under the heading “Discipline in Schools – Teachers’ Powers” on pages 3 and 4) enables a member of staff to confiscate, retain or dispose of a student’s property as a punishment, so long as it is reasonable in the circumstances. The law protects them from liability for damage to, or loss of, any confiscated items provided they have acted lawfully.
2) Power to search without consent for “prohibited items” including:
knives and weapons
tobacco and cigarette papers
any article that has been or is likely to be used to commit an offence, cause personal injury or damage to property; and
any item banned by the school rules which has been identified in the rules as an item which may be searched for.The legislation sets out what must be done with prohibited items found as a result of a search.
Weapons and knives and images of child sexual abuse must always be handed over to the police, otherwise it is for the teacher to decide if/when to return a confiscated item.
More detailed advice on confiscation and what must be done with prohibited items found as a result of a search is provided in ‘Screening, Searching and Confiscation – advice for head teachers, staff and governing bodies. See Associated Resources section below for a link to this document.
CHILD-ON-CHILD SEXUAL VIOLENCE AND SEXUAL HARRASSMENT
Following any report of child-on-child sexual violence or sexual harassment offline or online, school’s follow safeguarding principles set out in Keeping Children Safe in Education 2022 which will be replaced by new guidance in September 2023. The DSL Lead and/ or Deputies are the most appropriate person to advise.
Every aspect of sexual violence and sexual harassment is never acceptable and will not be tolerated and that students whose behaviour falls below expectations will be sanctioned. It is important for all staff to challenge all inappropriate language and behaviour between students. We aim to create a culture where this is totally unacceptable.
Sexually abusive language or behaviour should never be normalised as ‘banter’, fact of life or an expected part of growing up. Staff should model manners, courtesy, and dignified/ respectful relationships.
Where relevant students who fall short of these behaviour expectations may be sanctioned whilst other investigations by Police/ Children’s Social Care take place.
Responding assertively to inappropriate behaviour is an important intervention that helps prevent challenging abusive/ violent behaviour int the future.
It is essential that all victims are reassured that they will be supported, kept safe and are being taken seriously regardless of how long it has taken them to come forward. Abuse that occurs online or outside school hours should not be downplayed and should be treated equally seriously.
A victim should never be given the impression that they are creating a problem by reporting sexual violence or sexual harassment. Nor should a victim ever be made to feel ashamed for making a report of their experience minimised.
In instances where reports of sexual abuse or harassment are proven to be deliberately invented or malicious, the school shood consider whether any disciplinary action is appropriate for the individual who made it.
See Sexual Violence and Sexual Harassment Policy.
BEHAVIOUR INCIDENTS ONLINE
The way in which students relate to one another online can have a significant impact on the culture and day to day life of the school. Negative interactions can damage relationships and can lead to it feeling unsafe. Behaviour issues are difficult to manage as they can be anonymous and occur both off and on the premises. Even thought the online space differs in many ways, the same standards of behaviour are expected and that everyone should be treated with kindness, respect, and dignity.
Inappropriate online behaviour including bullying (See Anti-Bullying Policy), the use of inappropriate language, the soliciting and sharing of nude or semi-nude images and videos and sexual harassment should be addressed in accordance with the same principles as offline behaviour, including following the schools Safeguarding Policy and speaking to DSL Lead and Deputies.
When an incident involves nude or semi-nude images/ videos, the member of staff should refer the incident to the DSL Lead or Deputies as the most appropriate person to advise.
Many online behaviour incidents amongst young people occur outside the school day and off the school premises. Parents/ Carers are responsible for this behaviour. Schools should have to confidence to sanction students when their behaviour online poses a threat or cause harm to another student and could have repercussions for the orderly running of the school, when the student is identifiable as a member of school.
Students may bring mobile phones into school as some of our students rely on this regard to attachment difficulties. They are advised to hand them in or if they choose not should remain unused and out of site during lesson times and only accessed at agreed break times. Failure to comply with this may mean the phone being confiscated and returned at the end of the day. Students are encouraged not to bring motorbike phones into school or hand them in. No responsibility of loss or damage will be provided by the school.
SUSPECTED CRIMINAL BEHAVIOUR
In cases where a member of staff or the Headteacher suspects criminal behaviour, the school should make an initial assessment usually by a member of SLT. This should then be reported to the Police if there are enough facts gathered. If there are not enough facts, then an initial investigation should take place lead by the Headteacher/ Deputy Headteacher (s). These investigations will be fully documented, and any evidence preserved. Once the decision is made to report, the information should be passed over to the Police and any further action should not interfere with the Police investigation. It may be during this time that students (s) allegedly involved may have to go onto a RHISE Programme of study. In some cases, it may involve young person having no contact with school staff and having to be placed on remote and distance learning. They may still be able to attend Alternative Provision if it safe for everyone concerned.