ROSELYN HOUSE SCHOOL / THE RHISE SERVICE
Since March 2020, Roselyn House School and The RHISE Service have been following strict protective measures using Bubbles and zoning in response to the Covid-19 Pandemic.
From September 2021, following consultation with students, parents / carers and staff, we have decided to continue with the separate groups. Moving forwards to September 2022, there will still be some elements of groups remaining, which is in the best interest of students, as they may have known no other system and for them it would create increased anxiety if they were placed together as a whole school pre-pandemic. We have learnt that such groupings place less pressure on students in terms of interactions with other students and have promoted a more positive attitude to learning and relationship forming.
We have ongoing updated risk assessments in line with updated DfE, Local Authority and Union Advice.
We have 4 groups.
Group 1 and Group 2 based at the main school building.
Group 3 is made up of Admin and Tech Support staff. These staff are based at the main school building.
Group 4 are based at The RHISE Centre. This cohort is then split into Group A and B.
On Friday, one group starts at the usual time (9:25am) and finish earlier (2:40pm). The second group starts later (10.10am) and finishes later (3.25pm) This is the same amount of time spent at school and will allow enrichment activities to take place.
The RHISE Centre holds sessions for RHISE Service individuals and has Sixth Form Groups leads based there. For students, the day begins at 10:00am and ends at 3:00pm.
With the majority of COVID 19 guidelines now obsolete, Roselyn House School and The RHISE service are still recommending the following. If a child is feeling unwell, has a persistent cough, high temperature or lack of taste/smell then they should stay at home until the temperature has gone.
Teaching staff move to the classroom to deliver lessons. We understand that the expectation of our students to stay in the same room for a morning or afternoon is a difficult one, so we will be having staggered break times and ‘get up and move’ time.
Class groups will be in Year groups or Key stages and will have support. There will be a maximum of 8 in the class group. They have a Support Assistant.
Lessons follow National Curriculum and are broad and balanced.
Hot lunches are provided in the classroom daily, unless a group requires a packed lunch due to an educational visit.
We have installed hand sanitiser stations around school in each zone and frequent handwashing is encouraged. Classroom desks are wiped down during the day and the whole school cleaned in the evenings. Windows and doors are left open to increase ventilation and minimise touch points within school. There are CO2 monitors in classrooms and office areas and readings are taken on a regular basis.
Each group is in School 5 days per week and have minimal cross over with other students from different groups. We continue to have Vocational Programmes with Alternative Providers which are fully risk assessed.
If a child becomes ill at school with suspected Covid-19 symptoms, they will be taken home. If a child is feeling unwell, has a persistent cough, high temperature or lack of taste/smell then they should stay at home until the temperature has gone.
We expect students where they can, to comply with this way of working and to follow the Behaviour Policy and maintain a good level of positive behaviour towards the systems which have been put in place for everyone’s safety.
This policy has been written with understanding and reference to:
Behaviour and Discipline in Schools – DfE January 2016
Developing an Attachment Aware Behaviour Regulation Policy – Brighton and Hove September 2018
This policy should be read in conjunction with other school policies relating to interaction between adults and students. In particular Roselyn House School’s Behaviour Support and Physical Intervention Policy and Safeguarding Policy.
The responsible people for the implementation of this policy are the Headteacher, Business Manager, Teaching and Learning Co-ordinator and Group Leads. The policy will be reviewed annually by the Headteacher in consultation with the staff.
The Independent School Standards, Regulations (2014) make it a legal requirement that a written policy to promote good behaviour is drawn up and effectively implemented which sets out disciplinary sanctions. This also works alongside the school’s anti-bullying strategy and Safeguarding Policy.
This policy is produced in consultation with all staff so as to be clear and understood. It is available by request, in the school prospectus and on the school website. The following ten key aspects of school practice have been addressed to contribute towards improving the quality of pupil behaviour,
A consistent approach to behaviour management.
Strong school leadership.
Rewards and sanctions.
Behaviour strategies and the teaching of good behaviour.
Staff development, training and support.
Student support systems.
Liaison with parents/ carers and other agencies.
Managing student transition.
Organisation and facilities.
SEMH difficulties is an overarching term for children who demonstrate difficulties with emotional regulation and/or social interaction and/or are experiencing mental health problems.
Children and young people who have difficulties with their emotional and social development may have immature social skills and find it difficult to make and sustain healthy relationships. These difficulties may be displayed through the child or young person becoming withdrawn or isolated, as well as through challenging, disruptive or disturbing behaviour.
At Roselyn House School, we experience a wide range and degree of mental health problems. These could manifest as difficulties such as problems of mood (anxiety or depression), problems of conduct (oppositional problems and more severe conduct problems including aggression), self-harming, substance abuse, eating disorders or physical symptoms that are medically unexplained. Some children and young people may have other recognised disorders such as attention deficit disorder (ADD), attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD), attachment disorder, autism or pervasive developmental disorder, an anxiety disorder, a disruptive disorder or schizophrenia or bipolar disorder.
Inappropriate / disturbing / challenging behaviours can be interpreted as a symptom or communication of an underlying need or difficulty. In order to address such behaviours, we must address these underlying needs / difficulties. It is crucial to identify, understand and then address/support the underlying factors that impact on children and young people, such as Speech, Language and Communication Difficulties, attachment difficulties, unhelpful thought processes or learning needs.
Some inappropriate / disturbing / challenging behaviours can be avoided or significantly reduced and managed through proactively promoting and supporting positive social, emotional and mental health. Roselyn House School tolerates a wide variety of behaviours but does not accept them as inevitable and unchangeable. An individual’s behaviours will be prioritised and through planned intervention and adherence to the rewards and sanctions in the policy, ensure that the consequences to behaviour are specific and limited.
All systems, teaching and management of the school focus on the promotion, establishment and internalisation of socially acceptable and appropriate behaviours for example, the Roselyn House School Code and individual IEBP’s.
The objectives may best be achieved by a mutually supportive whole school approach and a whole staff responsibility to work within the agreed parameters of the Behaviour Policy and its procedures.
Roselyn House School endeavours to reinforce the behaviour policy through the valued partnership with parents/ carers and they will be asked to complete behaviour/ emotional literacy profiles to help staff at Roselyn House School to develop a greater understanding of their child.
We have a whole school approach to creating an inclusive and positive school ethos around behaviour. We place a strong emphasis on the emotional health and wellbeing of all members of our school community. SEMH needs are central to the effectiveness of our school and an Attachment Aware approach to our Behaviour Policy.
The NHS and DfE established a National Children and Young People’s Mental Health Taskforce in September 2014 and produced the report: ‘Future in Mind – promoting, protecting and improving our children and young people’s mental health and wellbeing’. This was published in March 2015. This document recognises that attachment relationships have a direct bearing on children’s capacity to succeed in school. It emphasises that relationships and a sense of belonging, are key to good mental health for all, but are essential for children who have experienced multiple relational losses and trauma. The DfE have published Mental health and wellbeing provision in schools October 2018 which outlines the duties on schools to promote and protect the welfare of their pupils, as set out by Government guidance, ‘Keeping Children Safe In Education’ September 2021. There are also duties on schools to ensure pupils with additional educational needs, including those in relation to mental health, are provided with adequate support to learn, as set out in, ‘Special educational needs and disability code of practice: 0-25 years.
Everyone will always act with courtesy and respect for each other and all students have the right to learn in a safe environment.
To enable the Headteacher and Deputy Headteacher of Roselyn House School to exercise their responsibility to ensure each child’s access to and progression through the broad and balanced range of National Curriculum subjects; being able to access accreditation as appropriate.
To allow the school to promote the spiritual, moral, cultural, social, mental and physical developments of students and prepare students for the opportunities, responsibilities and experiences of adult life. The policy reinforces those other cross-curricular and thematic activities in school which develop appropriate values for students with regard to society, relationships and the environment.
To work towards a “restraint free environment” in which all children and staff feel safe. Constant monitoring, review and reflection will form the basis to aid this.
To support all teaching, support staff and volunteers who come into contact with students when working within the school.
To establish a positive environment in which every child is encouraged to respond with socially acceptable behaviour to situations which they encounter and that they are comfortable with those situations.
To allow both students and staff to develop an awareness of self and progress towards an emotionally literate school ethos.
To allow students to develop their own strategies in order to manage their Mental Health and wellbeing as effectively as they can moving towards independence.
To provide a feeling of community and belonging for both staff and students by fostering appropriate ‘understanding’ relationships.
Purpose of Policy
To provide a positive environment that acknowledges and rewards socially acceptable behaviour whilst discouraging inappropriate behaviour.
To view students as individuals with individual histories, circumstances, needs, views and responses.
To demonstrate a consistent response to behaviour across the school that is immediate and appropriate.
To provide a secure and predictable structure in which students can work to develop personal behaviour management and self-esteem.
To provide a non-rejecting environment in which the children feel safe to develop emotionally.
To provide a wide range of opportunities, real life and social situations for the students to experience.
To provide opportunities which are equivalent within other forms of provision.
To talk openly within school about thoughts and feelings and encourage young people and staff to gain the confidence to achieve this within the right environments and at the appropriate time.
To evaluate a student’s behaviour which accommodates re-adjustment for each individual as part of an ongoing developmental process and which also accommodates students’ individual histories, circumstances, needs, views and responses.
These aims can be achieved by being attachment aware in the following ways:
Being ‘fair’ is not about everyone getting the same (equality) but about everyone getting what they need (equity).
Understanding that behaviour is a form of communication. In the Code of Practice of SEND in 2014 (updated January 2015) , SEMH replaced SEBD which helps to promote a shift towards viewing behaviour as a communication of an emotional need.
Taking non-judgemental, curious and empathetic attitude towards behaviour. We need to reflect on the feelings and emotions that may drive a certain behaviour rather than the behaviour itself.
We need to understand that our students are vulnerable and not ‘badly behaved’. We need to find out what is making them vulnerable and put the appropriate strategies in place.
We need not to take some behaviours personally and question why a young person is struggling and how do we help through this distress.
Putting relationships first where we have strong relationships and operate as a whole school community where there is connection, inclusion, respect and value for all.
Maintain clear boundaries and expectations. We have to have expectations, routines and structure. This is what makes our young people feel safe. At Roselyn House School we pride ourselves on nurture and structure.
We need predictable routines and responses to behaviour which are modelled appropriately.
Certain behaviours should be made explicit and rewards and sanctions an expected response.
Understand that not all behaviours are a matter of choice and not all behaviours are within a young person’s control.
Key points for staff from DfE Guidance
Teachers have statutory authority to discipline students whose behaviour is unacceptable, who break the school rules or who fail to follow a reasonable instruction (Section 90 and 91 of the Education and Inspections Act 2006).
The power also applies to all paid staff (unless the Headteacher says otherwise) with responsibility for students, such as Teaching Assistants.
Teachers can discipline students at any time the student is in school or elsewhere under the charge of a Teacher, including on school visits.
Teachers can also discipline students in certain circumstances when a student’s misbehaviour occurs outside of school.
Teachers have a power to impose detention outside school hours.
Teachers can confiscate pupils’ property.
Deprivation of food or drink.
Withholding medication, medical or dental treatment.
Wearing distinctive or inappropriate clothing.
Any sanction with intent to humiliate or ridicule.
OUTSIDE THE SCHOOL
All students should represent the school positively.
AROUND THE SCHOOL
To move around safely with consideration for others.
Use of appropriate language and manners to all.
The building is a “No Smoking” environment.
To remain within the boundaries of the school unless under supervision or permission has been granted.
POSITIVE HANDLING – for further guidelines see Management of Violent Behaviour
Positive handling should only be used to prevent the young person from harming him/ herself, others or from damaging property. Sections 550A of the 1966 Education Act allows teachers, and other persons who are authorised to have control or charge of students, to use such force as is reasonable in all the circumstances to prevent a student from doing, or continuing to do any of the following:-
Committing a criminal offence (including behaving in a way that would be an offence if the student were not under the age of criminal responsibility).
Injuring themselves or others.
Causing damage to property (including the student’s own property).
Engaging in any behaviour prejudicial to maintaining a good order and discipline at the school or among any of its students, whether that behaviour occurs in a classroom during a teaching session or elsewhere.
Positive handling should involve minimum reasonable force and should seek to avoid injury.
Positive handling should not be used if there is a likelihood of staff injury.
Positive handling should only be used with professional judgement.
Whenever possible try to ensure two or more members of staff are available.
Positive handling should be entered on the Incident Record Form, a copy being available for the Headteacher/ Deputy Headteacher and where appropriate, an LEA representative.
A specific handling policy will be written into the IEBP for those students whose behaviour presents a probability that physical/ containment/ positive handling is a likely situation.
Behaviour should be viewed in relation to its antecedents within the four main areas.
Placement of students e.g. seating arrangements, organisations to maximise effective work and minimise disruption.
Placement of resources.
Preparation of lessons.
Preparation of resources.
The working environment.
Teaching styles – based on varieties of: supported self-study, group to individual.
Learning styles – passive or active.
Appropriate applicable content.
Differentiated to individual students.
Knowledge of individual students.
Creation of a positive environment.
Effective use of rewards and sanctions.
Appropriate and effective use of un-timetabled time.
Sensitivity to flash points.
Awareness of potential problem areas.
The consequences of an individual’s behaviour should be consistent to the individual both in their understanding and experience.
Consistency is achieved by adherence to the school’s graded menu of rewards and sanctions.
Praise should outweigh negative comment.
Placed on own to work
Responsibility – in class
Placed on own to work in classroom
Responsibility – in school
Work finished in own time
Removed from class for short period
Record of achievement
Loss of activity/Friday afternoon
Display of work to others (Headteacher)
Work outside classroom
Display of work on wall
Sent to Headteacher with work
Mention in assembly
Letter/phone call to parent
Involve parents/home visit
Report to parents
Work outside class group/timetable
School certificates for effort
Fines to repair damage – determined by extent of repair
School certificates for achievement
Fines to pay for false fire call - £140
School certificates for termly achievements
Fines to pay for discharge of fire extinguishers - £160
Parents/ carers asked to come to school
Intermittent class reinforcers
Restorative Justice Conferences
Intermittent class reinforcers
Cause and effect meetings
End of day letters
Cool off period away from school
Personal reports to parents/carers by letter/phone call
Involvement of Police
LEA/other agencies asked to come to school
Trip out of school
Others negotiated with the student
STUDENT MANAGEMENT GUIDANCE
SOCIAL SKILLS MANAGEMENT
Staff monitor students’ behaviour during staff/student contact.
Staff/student interaction involves consistent, informal social education.
Staff explain differing social registers and encourage acceptable patterns of student responses in both formal and informal situations.
Various strategies are used. For example, at meal times staff who supervise a group at a table will curtail unnecessary movement around the dining hall, monitor collection of food and drink, encourage and maintain an acceptable standard of table manners, supervise the moving of tables and stacking of chairs. They regulate the social interaction between individual students. Students are encouraged to adopt acceptable eating behaviour.
Mutual respect and role modelling are the expectation of the entire community within Roselyn House School. By showing mutual respect and demonstrating social registers, students will overtime perform these their selves. This includes social pleasantries, ‘asking how people are’, wishing people well, knocking on doors and referring to staff by Title and Surname.
Sanctions and rewards apply to homophobic, biphobic and transphobic bullying and language.
We promote respect and equality across all protected characteristics, including sexual orientation and gender identity, and prepare students for life in diverse 21st Century Britain.
When students exceed the baseline of acceptable behaviour in an extreme manner, it is reported on an Incident Monitoring Form. It is then passed on to the Headteacher or Deputy Headteacher. A copy is then placed in the student’s file.
Accordingly, when behaviour of a noteworthy merit is observed, that too is reported to the Class Teacher/Learning Support Assistant/ Mentor or a Headteacher’s Commendation awarded. The Headteacher’s Award is presented in assembly on a Friday afternoon where the student will receive a certificate, and their work displayed on the Headteacher’s Board. The certificate is also sent digitally to those who receive one. A file of previous exemplary work is kept in the school office.
Some variance in staff tolerance levels is inevitable. It is the individual’s role to liaise with other staff to share information. Mr Birkenhead is available to help offer advice.
Informal observation of students within a group enables staff to identify behaviours. This information will advise the planning of the student’s IEBP. The IEBP will be shared with the child and parents/ carers and targets presented on the child’s academic records, including, annual reviews etc.
The IEBPs and lesson tracking will identify trends, assess student’s strengths/ weaknesses and evaluate the various actions taken. (Carousel throughout the year).
Some specific, unacceptable, recurring behaviours will be identified and followed up in Mentor sessions, Morning workshops or specific planned individual interventions.
Staff formulate, implement and evaluate strategies then plan provision to reduce or alter unacceptable behaviours against specific time scales in the child’s Individual Education and Behaviour Plan (IEBP) and on their Positive Handling Plan.
Staff can request staff meetings, case conferences and external support to determine appropriate management policies for students who display extreme patterns of behaviour.
PRINCIPLES OF BEHAVIOUR MANAGEMENT
The concept of PUNISHMENT has not been found to be effective in altering patterns of behaviour in children with Social, Emotional and Mental Health Difficulties.
Punishment might create frustration in the student, which could be vented on a victim later.
Our alternative is to use sanctions that are a logical consequence of unacceptable behaviours in order that the child may begin to take responsibility for their own actions.
Similarly, acts of good behaviour need to be recognised and positively reinforced.
Such strategies are not guaranteed to succeed. They take a lot of patience, require an appropriate timescale and flexibility of implementation, but have an optimum likelihood of altering unacceptable student behaviour.
The formulation of positive strategies is dependent in many variables and is under constant review. Some ‘logical’ strategies fail whilst more ‘unorthodox’ one’s work. So, it is important to appreciate the unpredictable nature of a child’s reaction when deciding which strategy to employ.
On some occasions there may be unforeseen adverse reaction to a considered strategy.
Strategies are more likely to succeed if they are agreed with the student, fully understood by all concerned, undertaken against an appropriate time-scale, have an easily achievable objective and are evaluated and rewarded with praise to enhance self-esteem. Pastoral times often address the issues.
We advocate an ‘Authoritative’ versus ‘Authoritarian’ approach where adults are ‘in control’ versus ‘controlling.
We want students to be able to be themselves and often act out being ‘a child’ in a safe environment where they are free to become who they are.
We should never blame others when we feel stuck and support understanding everyone is doing the best, they can at the time with the resources they have. We should consistently review practice and support each other with the young person at the centre of everything we do.
The Secure Base Model (Schofield and Beek 2014) is a resilience- based model that provides a framework for therapeutic caregiving that focuses on caregivers and young people. Over time positive caregiving provides a secure base over five dimensions which can help the young person explore, learn and develop in a positive direction.
Availability: helping the young person to trust.
Sensitivity: helping the young person to manage feelings.
Acceptance: building the young person’s self-esteem.
Co-operation: Helping the young person to feel effective.
Family Membership: Helping the young person to belong.
Provides a SECURE BASE which for many of our students is SCHOOL.
MANAGEMENT STRATEGY RANGE
For INDIVIDUAL STUDENTS there are a range of management strategies that can be used to encourage acceptable behaviour. The following suggestions are strategies which encourage self-control, self-esteem, achievement and develop sound relationships on an individual basis:
Emotional Literacy Work
Rewards/Points Sheets, IEPB
Minor areas of responsibility
Extended areas of responsibility
(earned through extended effort)
It is important that achievement and improvement, in ANY area, should be acknowledged and applauded. Staff seek to actively promote regular achievement to develop self-motivation in students.
Similarly, for GROUPS OF YOUNG PEOPLE there are a range of management strategies that can be used to encourage acceptable behaviour. These include:
A non-academic classroom activity
Class merit trips
These strategies are controlled by staff, used cautiously, set against an overall time scale, and undertaken through consultation with, and the prior approval of the Headteacher.
Strategies that might work for one member of staff do not necessarily transfer effectively to others. Individual staff develop a personal “repertoire” tailored to the individual needs of their students. Comments and observations from other staff can often prove pertinent.
Many strategies will alter behaviour, but their effect if frequently short lived and cannot always be effectively repeated. However, even limited success is positive and when recorded shows a trend towards achievement which gradually improves self-esteem and alters behaviour.
It is better to always think in POSITIVE terms and be objective. Negative attitudes have a very limited role in meeting the needs of children with severe emotional and behavioural difficulties.
DETERMINATION OF NEEDS
The need to realise your own
potential and self-fulfilment.
Needs for art and symmetry.
Needs for knowledge and understanding.
Needs for deserved praise.
LOVE AND BELONGING
The need to affiliate.
The need to be free from fear, to be able to depend upon someone.
The need for food, warmth, shelter, etc.
If staff become aware of needs other than academic ones these will be discussed at staff meetings and appropriate agencies informed. This is in order to work in a multi-disciplinary way as identified in “Working Together”.
When determining children’s needs it is helpful to do so against a specific framework. When assessing student’s needs staff may consider the Hierarchy of Needs developed by Abraham Maslow (see diagram above).
It is unlikely that higher order needs can be effectively addressed if the lower order have not been met.
Children frequently mask their true needs. For instance, it is common for students to direct anger and frustration at displacement targets, whilst the true cause lies in a different direction. These anxieties are usually based in unresolved social needs. To resolve the problem, accurate identification of the cause is required.
Staff may expend much effort and time in meeting lower order needs so that work tasks can be successfully undertaken.
There are many impediments on the path to achievement. These include short concentration span, disruptive behaviour, testing-out behaviour, attention-seeking behaviour, displacement activities, frustration, fear of failure, fear of new work tasks, violent mood swings, destruction of work and many other factors, all of which must be addressed or contained, by the teacher.
The end-product of work achieved often does not reflect the considerable effort involved. Even so the masterpiece frequently appears slap-dash and comparable to the product of a much younger child.
Our students have had long experience of academic failure, social rejection and alienation. They feigned unconcern for achievement at the slightest pretext, but they do respond to praise. Staff build on success, not failure.
Progress is frequently slow, fragmented and often impeded by behaviour problems, low attendance and other inhibiting variables. Flexibility is required and a wide range of Teaching/ Learning strategies are employed.
Student’s personal and social development relies heavily on the ability of staff to accurately identify and meet social and academic needs. Determining children’s needs with accuracy is best achieved on an individual basis with the student, an ideal use of Learning Support Mentor Sessions.
Staff work towards providing an environment where children experience consistency, safety and stability through which students can achieve and grow. In doing so developing an emotionally literate ethos.
When identifying possible target behaviours staff review relevant records.
Staff are required to set behaviour targets for each student in their Learning Support Worker Group on the IEBP record in the following manner:
After discussion staff identity target behaviour.
Staff target behaviour in terms of observed social behaviour.
State strategies and provision intended to alter target behaviour.
Feedback IEBP to staff briefing.
Inform student of the target and negotiate time scale if appropriate.
Evaluate and comment upon effective outcomes.
Record targets in teaching and learning folders.
All targets should be SMART:
To set behavioural targets, staff assess behaviour in the following way:
Observed behaviour is stated in exact terms, generalisations for e.g.
‘He hits children when passing their seat’.... NOT....’He is disruptive’.
Specific behaviour can be altered. Generalisations are “fuzzy” to deal with in terms of developing control strategies.
Behaviour targets relate to classroom and out of class behaviours. A formal Observation Assessment is continually being developed with the School.
The starting point should be short, clearly achievement targets that will ensure success and promote increased self-esteem. These can then be extended as appropriate.
Success relies on positive attitudes, a sensitivity to the student’s responses and the imaginative ability to provide a variety of context for students to practice positive self-management.
MANAGEMENT OF VIOLENT BEHAVIOUR
Aspects of behaviour common in students who display severe emotional and mental health difficulties.
Many students experience extreme mood swings which may involve a range of behaviours that demonstrate an emotional fragility.
At such times students can react to their circumstances with increasing hostility and aggression.
Disruptive behaviour is often a symptom of fear, failure or frustration. Frequently, children do not identify the true cause of their anxiety or emotional distress but fixate on an alternative “supposed” cause.
Real or imagined slights, minor disruptive incidents, or tensions within the teaching group, can provoke triggering incidents which invoke hostile responses in an emotionally fragile student.
With or without staff support to defuse the student’s tension and frustrated behaviour, the child may display an outburst of violence.
Outbursts of violence may be exhibited, the cause of which may originate out of the school or even to the child’s history.
INITIAL MANAGEMENT OF DISRUPTIVE BEHAVIOUR
The level and nature of appropriate staff support, or intervention, will wherever possible depend on the attitude and behaviour of the student.
When the staff observe tension, the initial approach should be low key and appropriate.
The student’s response determines the route by which staff manage the child’s difficulties. In many cases it is possible to divert the child away from violent outcomes.
In some cases, the student will dismiss all avoidance options, suggested by staff and persistently escalate aggressive behaviour towards confrontation and a violent outcome.
Some situations can escalate very quickly.
During an escalation staff should decide whether to summon support to take other measures to safeguard the health and safety of all present.
PRINCIPLES GOVERNING MANAGEMENT DECISIONS
Staff may use many options and strategies to manage disaffected students. The selection of specific management techniques depends, in part, on the personality, character and temperament of individual staff. No set of strategies guarantee a successful outcome to behavioural confrontations. However, the following principles should govern management decisions:
It is essential that staff, when managing disruptive students, should remain objective and calm, in both speech and actions. It is not possible to effectively manage students when one becomes subjective and “heated” by the circumstances.
It is important to listen and respond quietly to the student, rather than overwhelm the child with loud and insistent directives (loud, nagging demands).
If no immediate solution is obvious, ask, if appropriate, if one may deal with the difficulty at an agreed later time. Imposing an immediate “solution” may not dispel the student’s frustration, or defuse unacceptable behaviour, whereas time-distancing problems can (sometimes) do.
Avoid attitudes becoming polarised. Staff should keep their position flexible for as long as possible, without losing their objective. One should rarely push towards a confrontation.
Always maintain positive attitudes that are constructive. By stressing positive behaviours regularly, one reinforces desired attitudes in students. Refer to the children’s previous achievements and promote self-esteem.
In confrontations, negative factors should be stated in a neutral tone of voice. Factual statements should be used as the basis for staff/student discussion.
Always “clarify” options and consequences, rather that impose directives or make unachievable “threats”. Students must be made aware that it is they who make the decisions and that those decisions have obvious consequences. They make choices.
Create “diversionary” displacement activities, involving other people in order to dispel the student’s aggression. Resist becoming “cornered” in an argument, one becomes defensive very easily, avoid it. It takes two to sustain arguments.
Decide, when appropriate, to involve other adults in support. Management of disruptive behaviour requires individual, undistracted attention. Supporting adults can encourage rational, sympathetic, supportive attitudes in the other group members, in order to “talk round” the aggressive student.
When support is available, remove the student from an “unhelpful” environment. Don’t allow negative peer group “encouragement”. Withdrawal can often enable staff and students to focus more clearly on difficulties and resolve them through two-way discussion or conversation.
Staff must assess the risks, promote physical safety and do everything possible to prevent injury.
PRINCIPLES GOVERNING POSITIVE HANDLING OF VIOLENT STUDENTS
When aggressive students escalate confrontations to a violent outcome, staff, as far as possible, should promote physical safety for all students involved. This may require positive handling of aggressive students.
No management strategies, including positive handling, which involve the deliberate ill-treatment of children by staff are acceptable (e.g. pulling hair, punching, emotional abuse, etc).
Violent students may be positively handled by being held by the forearm, withdrawn, if appropriate, or seated until calm. The Team-Teach methods will always be used.
In extreme circumstances, such as the violent student attempting injury to self or others, the student should be brought to the ground gradually by the application of mechanical advantage and should be held, if possible, in a front recovery position on the floor and held until calm. If the student is kicking out at others, a third member of staff may be required to hold the student’s legs.
In exceptional circumstances with very strong and aggressive children and young people it may be necessary to employ the use of Team Teach Ground Advanced Recovery Holds. Staff involved in such strategies will make strenuous efforts to the ground recovery safeguards published by Team Teach.
Later when calm the student should be asked to be seated, if they so wish, and discuss the reason for the outburst. Discussion should include other, more acceptable, options or decisions through which the causes of the violent outburst could have been resolved. This follow up action is the crucial element of support for violent children. It is essential that staff devote enough time to this aspect of management of violent behaviour. An Incident Reflection Form may be used to “de-brief” the child.
Any injury should be examined, treated and recorded by the qualified First Aid staff.
The incident must be recorded on the Incident Monitoring Record and reported to the Headteacher and/or Deputy Headteacher and the incident recorded as a serious incident. Those involved will be advised of the course of action they may wish to take. For serious criminal damage and/ or assault offences, the Police may be contacted, and this could result in the young person being prosecuted. Roselyn House School will work closely with all parties involved and will follow the Safe School’s Partnership Agreement with Lancashire Constabulary.
For assault (by student on student or student on staff or staff on student or parent on staff etc) the Headteacher and/ or Deputy Headteacher should be notified and the incident recorded as a serious incident. Those involved will be advised of the course of action they may wish to take. In the case of an alleged assault, the Senior Leadership Team will speak directly to the alleged victim and they will be asked if Police involvement is required. In the case of an alleged assault on a student, parents/ carers will be consulted also. If a student is subsequently arrested following the Police being informed then a ‘cool off period’ will be put into place for the alleged perpetrator and a meeting set up with the LEA and parents/ carers and any other agencies that may be involved. This process will adhere to Roselyn House School’s Exclusion Policy Guidelines. The young person out of school will continue to be supported by Roselyn House School and education provided. A meeting will be arranged within a reasonable time scale in order to discuss the outcome of any prosecution/conviction. If the length before prosecution is prolonged, an individual package of education will be provided off the school site. This may apply in the case of a student who has allegedly assaulted another student(s). By providing such a ‘cool off period’ for a student, it allows the Police/ School to investigate the incident without prejudice. It stops any further incidents occurring or discrimination forming. It is a system which helps keep both the alleged victim and alleged perpetrator safe from any further risk. If there is no conviction following a Police investigation, then the young person will return to school following a Restorative Justice Meeting and be provided with supported re-integration. If the young person is convicted, then a discussion will take place as to whether the placement is still viable for the young person or whether an alternative, individualised package should be put into place. This may consist of learning/ teaching off site and vocational placements, for example.
A list of “Team Teach” trained and authorised staff will be detailed in the staff room.
All staff, however, may support and the Team Teach “help protocol” will allow them to play their part in the process. All staff are obliged to act within their “duty of care”, however there is an expectation that authorised and trained staff will be utilised first and foremost with regards to a positive handling intervention.
Staff and children involved in positive handling will receive a de-brief with their Line Manager or the Headteacher, whichever is most appropriate.
THE POSITIVE HANDLING OF A VIOLENT STUDENT
IT IS CONSIDERED THAT ACTION UNDER THIS HEADING WILL NORMALLY ONLY BE NECESSARY IN A VERY SMALL NUMBER OF INSTANCES.
Prior to exercising containment, the staff should advise/warn the student that this is about to happen.
If it becomes necessary to physically contain/ hold a violent student to avoid injury, the amount of force used must be the minimum necessary to hold the student safely. Any offensive act towards a child such as punching, hitting or slapping is totally unacceptable. Sudden violent pushing which results in the child/ young person falling over is also unacceptable, whereas a steady push or pull to separate the aggressor from the victim might be appropriate. Staff will be operating within the specified guidelines and their actions will be evaluated in this context after any incident of violent behaviour.
The length of time a student is contained/ held, and the degree of force used will be the minimum necessary to achieve the immediate objective of regaining control of the situation. As soon as it is safe, positive handling should be gradually relaxed to allow the child to regain self-control.
Whenever possible, a member of staff faced with a situation where physical intervention is thought to be necessary should call for assistance so that there are at least two members of staff present when a student is being contained/ held. If more than one person exercises the positive handling, less strength is required, and the risk of injury is reduced. However, it is important to remember that the greater number of staff involved, the less efficient a positive handling procedure becomes. Communication between staff can break down, resulting in a melee of arms, legs and raised voices.
If it is necessary to contain/ hold a girl, a female member of staff must be present from the earliest possible time.
Throughout the exercise of containment/ positive handling, the student should be spoken to in a quiet and soothing manner to encourage the speedy return of calm and self-control. The staff holding should make it clear that the student will be released as soon as calm is restored.
At no time during or after positive handling must clothing be forcibly removed from a student.
Footwear may need to be removed to prevent damage/ injury.
Data analysis of records will be made at regular intervals and appropriate evaluations discussed with all staff.
METHODS OF POSITIVE HANDLING
A situation should be made safe and where possible Team Teach Positive Handling Methods used.
In some circumstances a small child can be held sufficiently to calm down by an adult putting an arm around the child holding the child’s arm or shoulders. Care is needed if arms are held since a struggle could result in an arm being wrenched or broken. The risk is minimised if the other arm is held. Generally, the most useful form of positive handling is to hold the student with both arms in a “wrap”.
The above method of positive handling may not be suitable for an older child or young person, but the positive handling applied should not extend beyond holding with both arms engaged and employing controlled use of the weight of the body. At no stage of positive handling should there be any offensive behaviour towards a student/child. The positive handling should be applied in order to defend a student from harming himself/herself or others.
The positive handling of a very violent young person or large stature is likely to place the staff restraining in some danger of injury, and the risk will be reduced if other staff are called. On no account should members of staff attempt to out-wrestle a large and violent aggressor merely to re-establish control. If this sort of incident occurs, then the Police should be called, and the staff effort should be directed towards the protection of themselves and other students.
Training on Team Teach Positive Handling does not include techniques which rely on grips to joints of the body, which cause pain or risk of injury if the person under positive handling resists. On no account should a student be held by the neck. Techniques should rely on mechanical advantage and power (biomechanical efficiency) of the staff imposing the positive handling to prevent the child or young person moving his arms and, where necessary, legs. The most appropriate form of positive handling should be used with the minimum of physical contact.
Members of staff who are attacked by adults should not try to restrain them. The member of staff concerned should attempt to isolate him or herself from the aggressor and call the Police.
Inclusive with the Team Teach system of negative behaviour management is the requirement that staff will receive regular training in deflection, diffusion, minimising behaviours and with the positive handling. An ongoing system of practice will ensure that all staff are aware of correct procedures.
EXEMPLAR SPECIFIC HANDLING POLICY
Physical intervention will only be used as an option of last resort when staff perceive that they have no alternative course of action.
A Behaviour Management Plan – incorporating Positive Handling Plan will be completed during an individual student’s initial assessment period; where at risk reduction will be considered.
The plan will provide a history of strategies which have tried and failed or succeeded. These will include:
Proactive interventions to prevent risk of challenging behaviour.
Early interventions to manage risk of challenging behaviour.
Reactive interventions to respond to adverse outcomes.
The plan will be reviewed termly in collaboration with students, staff and parents/ carers.
On admission to the school, parents/ carers and students will agree to the planned use of restrictive interventions and a consent form will be signed.
Emergency use of physical intervention may be required when a student behaves in a way that has not been foreseen by risk assessment. Ideally the use of physical interventions in this situation will be agreed by two staff members.
CONFISCATION OF INAPPROPRIATE ITEMS
There are two sets of legal provisions which enable school staff to confiscate items from pupils:
1) The general power to discipline (as described in the bullets under the heading “Discipline in Schools – Teachers’ Powers” on pages 3 and 4) enables a member of staff to confiscate, retain or dispose of a pupil’s property as a punishment, so long as it is reasonable in the circumstances. The law protects them from liability for damage to, or loss of, any confiscated items provided they have acted lawfully.
2) Power to search without consent for “prohibited items” including:
knives and weapons
tobacco and cigarette papers
any article that has been or is likely to be used to commit an offence, cause personal injury or damage to property; and
any item banned by the school rules which has been identified in the rules as an item which may be searched for. The legislation sets out what must be done with prohibited items found as a result of a search.
Weapons and knives and extreme or child pornography must always be handed over to the police, otherwise it is for the teacher to decide if/when to return a confiscated item.
More detailed advice on confiscation and what must be done with prohibited items found as a result of a search is provided in ‘Screening, Searching and Confiscation – advice for head teachers, staff and governing bodies. See Associated Resources section below for a link to this document.
By applying Attachment Aware principles to our Behaviour Policy, we aim to encourage an inclusive approach which achieves better outcomes for our students at Roselyn House School. This will empower staff to respond in a way that is empathetic but boundaries, firm but kind. We should not confuse empathy with sympathy or condone/avoid consequences for negative behaviours. When young people feel heard, understood and cared about they begin to express emotions in a more positive way. This benefits all.
Date of Policy reviewed: January 2020
Updated March 2020 following Covid-19 Pandemic and rules from the UK Government
Updated July 2020 following Covid-19 Pandemic and rules from the UK Government for a full school return in September 2020
Reviewed June 2021
Reviewed June 2022
Reviewed by: S Damerall